Operation PLUM

WHAT PEOPLE ARE SAYING ABOUT OPERATION PLUM

Comments by Veterans and Family Members | Comments by Other Readers
Comments about Royce's Raid versus Doolittle's Raid

Send your reader comments to: comments@operationplum.com


Mrs. Margaret Brooker, nonagenarian and Charters Towers Australia native, was born in the house at 28 Aland Street and never lived anywhere else. During 1942, the house next store served as the 3rd Bomb Group's officers club. She recently recalled fond memories of these pilots and is displaying their photo on the outside steps (contained in 'Operation Plum').
Courtesy, Ken Deneen, 2009."

Comments from Veterans of the 27th and/or 3rd Bombardment Groups and Family Members

“I purchased your book and enjoyed it immensely. I have since been loaning it to friends.”
- Nathaniel Gunn [Son of Pacific War Legend, Col. Paul Irvin "Pappy Gunn", Pilot 27th and 3rd Bomb Groups. Nat is also the author of "Pappy Gunn", Author House Pub., Bloomington, Ind., 2004

“The book is excellent and the most readable of reads. The events, facts and data were so wonderfully presented that the possibility of boredom never became a factor. The research that went into this book was remarkable. I will never forget your presentation beginning page 218 with the heading ‘Missions, April, 19-21’ through the rest of the chapter to page 230. It was cleverly presented almost as a mystery thriller.”
- David Hochman, M.D., Physician and POW, 27th Bombardment Group

“The book brings back vivid memories of my time back there on Bataan.... I’m finally learning what happened to the pilots and men of the 27th who managed to avoid capture. I am greatly impressed by (Operation Plum)…..it is definitely an attention grabber.”
- James J. Bollich, Veteran and POW, 27th Bombardment Group
          Author, “Bataan Death March, A Soldier’s Story”

It’s a great book and you have done a wonderful job of research and writing.”
- Col. Ronald Hubbard, USAF (ret.), Pilot, 27th and 3rd Bombardment Groups

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“The book is outstanding. Even though I was there, I learned a lot. I was unaware of some of the events happening around me at the time that are portrayed in the book.”
- Col. Howard B. West, USAF (ret.), Pilot, 27th and 3rd Bombardment Groups

“The book is terrific; it is well written, well documented and well edited, and is a real contribution to the history of those events and people it covers.”
- G. Wayne Dow (Nephew of Harry Roth, Pilot, 27th Bombardment Group)

“I enjoyed the PLUM story very much. Lots of history there.”
- Col. William Beck, USAF (ret.), Pilot, 27th and 3rd Bombardment Groups

“For all those who like WWII books, this is one you do not want to miss. Having arrived with the 3rd Bomb. Gp. at Brisbane Feb. 25, '42, the book has been especially meaningful to me. It was the time when they were evacuating Java and coming to Aust. I had the pleasure of serving with and meeting, and photographing some of the 27th men that joined the 3rd. They had been thru hell. Unfortunately the first few months of the war were very costly to the 3rd in both men and aircraft, and very few of them lived to return to the States.”
- Jack Heyn, Veteran, 3rd Bombardment Group

“I have read Operation PLUM cover to cover and several sections more than once, especially the notes. .....the book should become the standard for air warfare in the Pacific during the early part of World War II. In a word, Operation PLUM is EXCELLENT; you've done a wonderful job!
- William Hipps, Jr. (Son of Brig. Gen. William Hipps, 27th pilot and veteran of Royce's Raid)

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“As his son-in-law, I had known known Warren Stirling for over 15 years. Having lived thru the death march and the war, he was always tight-lipped and not willing to open up about his experiences (other than very rare occasions). We understood and respected that, even though we knew he had a wealth of valuable information and history that we knew might never see the light of day. He let us know six years ago, that he had been contacted by a doctor, who was writing a book and had agreed to have telephone conversations to relate his experiences. Warren died 3 years ago and never had the opportunity to see the final book, but we know he would be proud of this fine work of art and appreciate the tremendous work and research that went into this. The documentation and detail is just remarkable. After reading Operation PLUM, we are even more proud of Warren and can now begin to understand the ordeal he and so many other men and women went through for their country. We thank the authors for their fine work and we highly recommend this book for all ages."
- Mark Kolar (Son-in-law of Warren Stirling), Austin, Texas

“Please excuse me for taking so long to comment on your wonderful book!! I've been busy sending almost a dozen copies to family, and entertaining the great conversations that have ensued. I can't tell you how much I've enjoyed Operation Plum. Although I was very close to my father, I had no idea he was part of such an elite group. As an Air Force pilot during Southeast Asia, and subsequent commercial pilot, my experiences pale in comparison to the ordeal our men suffered in the Phillipines. I've long heard of the U.S.'s ''adventures" in the Pacific, but never knew the conditions were as dire as they obviously were. The Western Pacific played a major role in WWII, and I'm proud that my father played a small part in that eventual victory. I can only hope that our troops currently battling in Iraq and Afghanistan have the good fortune to have someone chronicle their efforts the way you have those brave leaders of the 27th. Many thanks."
- J.D. Smith (Son of James R. Smith, pilot, 27th and 3rd Bomb Groups), Fort Worth, Texas

“Your well written book "PLUM" is a very revealing history of experiences encountered at the beginning of World War II. After reading the book and having experienced many of the situations it described, it has really refreshed my memories of the futile efforts we put up with and the subsequent bondage we endured with our conquering victors! The book also describes the results of unpreparedness when the danger is so obvious and just waiting to happen."
- R.L. Wolfersberger, Veteran and POW, 27th Bombardment Group, Windber, PA

“So little had been available about the early days of the Pacific air war until Operation Plum was published recently. This remarkable book opens that fascinating and important story to historians and general readers for the first time. The book would be incomplete if it did not describe the fate of all the men of the 27th Bomb Group. In my view, the authors have excelled in the especially difficult task of alternating between those who evacuated to Australia and the sad fate of the majority who remained behind on Luzon, became infantry for a short time, and were then interned, killed or put aboard “hell ships." Everyone interested in the chaos and bravery in the air over the Philippines, Java, Australia and New Guinea in 1941 and 1942 should read this book."
- Gus H. Breymann (Nephew, Captain Gustave M. Heiss, Jr. Pilot 27th/3rd Bombardment Groups)

“My father, Wesley Witten was in the 3rd Bomb Group, 89th Squadron from mid 1944 until mid 1945. He told me of some of the hardships he had heard about that occurred during the Bataan Death March. This spurred my interest in the history of the Grim Reapers. I have been a member of the Grim Reapers reunion for a number of years now. I had the opportunity to hear Larry Stephenson lecture our group on this book in April 2008. It was an excellent chance to learn history as it really was. Nothing I have read prepared me for the horrors and hardships the soldiers, sailors, and airmen suffered in the Philippines during the outbreak of WW2. These men were then herded like cattle at gunpoint to several prison camps in the Philippines. Held at gunpoint, they were made to watch a water spigot let fresh water run on the ground, while they were denied even a drink for themselves in the tropic heat.

“Every book I have read prior to this appears to be quite incomplete when it is compared to “Operation Plum”. This book is not your common book on world war two history. This book is a true work of a scholar. The time in the United States, and in the Philippines, before the war broke out, is well documented. The historical information in this book is so comprehensive that it makes other books seem as if they need additional volumes to complete their story. It is my opinion that Operation Plum will set a new standard for history books to meet in the future.

“If I would make one suggestion, it would be that a recording of the lecture be made available for people to watch. There is so much history contained in Larry Stephenson’s lecture that it makes this one a tough cookie to beat! My opinion on the book is that no school should be without it. No personal library should be without it. Good Luck!”
- Wes Witten, son of Wesley Witten, 3rd Bomb Group, 89th Squadron

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Comments from Other Readers

“I finished the book. It was truly an amazing read. When in Hawaii several years ago, I went to the Pearl Harbor Memorial site which was very interesting but I had no idea what all went on in the Philippines. The story of your uncle and all of the other young warriors tells a side of, perhaps, the darkest days of the war. The sacrifice and bravery was just unbelievable. As for you and your co-author, I must say you both did such a good job of not only giving the reader a good history lesson (the details and research are remarkable) but you are good storytellers at the same time. I went to the www.operationplum.com website and read all of the comments, including those of classmate USMC Captain Wayne Trinrud. In summary it is a privilege for me to write these comments about Operation Plum. ”
- Ginny Ricker Block, Upland California

“Finished your book and really enjoyed it. Your research is remarkable. I have read quite a bit of history about WWII, especially the Pacific area. It is difficult to find much about the first few months of the war and your book does a great job telling that story. The courage of the men you write about is almost beyond belief. It is not hard to see why they are called “the greatest generation." I can’t imagine doing long-range combat operations over the ocean and that terrain without radio navigation aids in marginal aircraft.”
- Wayne Trinrud, USMC Pilot 1967-1973, flying missions in the Philippines and Viet Nam

“Dear Mr. Martin, Please forgive my forwardness but I’d be truly honored if you would sign my copy of Operation PLUM. I fly for a living but my pressurized air conditioned tube doesn’t even remotely compare to what these men did with so little. I’m in awe of the aviators who came before us. Are there any of the participants still alive? I’m glad you and Dr. Stephenson related their history. Many thanks in advance.”
- Dean Armstrong, Jr.

“I just finished reading Operation Plum in two sittings, it was so compelling. The detailed research, with names, places, dates and connections, was stunning. The attrition of aircraft and personnel was tragic. They say that all battle plans become moot when the first shot is fired; sadly, this was the case even before the shooting began. There are multiple interesting coincidences here: Glen Stephenson was an enlisted man before going to West Point, later becoming a pilot and being assigned to Maxwell Field. My father served in WWI as an enlisted man on the Mexican border, got into West Point and was at Maxwell Field with a pursuit squadron shortly after I was born. Thanks for sharing your work with me and, more importantly, for writing it.”
- Nicholas W. Craw, Deputy President for Sport, FIA (Federation Internationale de Automobile)

“Operation PLUM is a well researched, highly informative book dealing with the 27th Bomb Group. From the wonderful forward to the excellent footnote & reference pages, it demonstrates what men, that were essentially abandoned, can do in the face of extreme duress. It has helped me tremendously in the development of the 3rd Bomb Group web site, since both these groups shared a common heritage. My hat is off to both Dr. Larry Stephenson & Adrian Martin for their fine presentation. I am constantly referring to it in my research for the 3rd BG site.”
- Gerry Kersey, Webmaster, 3rd Attack (Bomb) Group - www.3rdattackgroup.org

“The survivors of the 27th, which still meet after the war, tell us that they did not surrender but 'rather they were surrendered.' This was my feeling too when reading Operation PLUM. The book stimulates [the reader] to think about a lot of questions and to be thankful to have the chance to live in freedom and peace. I admire my colleague Dr. Larry Stephenson having suggested and helped realizing these investigations on the Pacific part of World War II. These operations were not less traumatic and destructive than those at the European front between 1939 (my birth year) and 1945.”
- Prof. Dr. med. Ernest Ulrich Voss, Emeritus Director, Dept. of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Staedtisches Klinikum, Karlsruhe Germany

“I read with fascination, as the pages filled in blanks in what I had known at the time all those events were taking place, and what I had learned in later years (which was more about what was happening in Japan during that time than it was about the experiences of U.S. GIs in the Pacific arena).”
- Dr. Robina Quale-Leach, Professor Emerita, Department of History, Albion College

“I finally finished the book. Wow! What a job it must have been to research all that out. Those men are real heros.........it was tough just to read about all the hardships and lack of supplies and information. Glen Stephenson was ten years ahead of me in the Air Force bases (where) he was stationed. It makes the 4th of july all the more meaningful!”
- Jack Cakebread, Founder, Chairman and CEO, Cakebread Cellars, Napa Valley, CA

“I finished reading Operation Plum last week and have been trying to decide which superlative to use! It was obvious to me that a good amount of research went into the writing... It makes one wonder how in the world the US managed to defeat this very tenacious enemy, doesn't it?”
- Sue Broeniman, Appleton, WI

“Perhaps no story of World War II is more tragic, ironic, or honorable than that of the 1,209 officers and men of the 27th Bombardment Group (Light), an A-24 dive-bomber unit that reached the Philippine Islands on November 29, 1941, barely three weeks before the attack that plunged the U.S. into World War II. Operation Plum recounts the history of young men sent to war poorly prepared and ill-equipped. "Pitch forked" into combat, they performed heroically, but most ultimately paid a terrible price for America's chronic lack of preparedness.”

“Through use of extensive interviews with 27th veterans and personal letters and documents, Operation Plum is at its best when examining the war through the eyes of several of the young pilots including Frank "Pete" Bender, James McAfee and John Davies. Especially, it recounts the story of pilot Lt. Glen Stephenson who grew up on a hard-scrabble farm during the Great Depression, turned hobo in 1934, graduated from West Point, and married just days before the 27th deployed. Co-author Stephenson is his nephew. Along the way, the reader meets such great Army Air Forces leaders as Edward Backus, Ralph Royce, Paul "Pappy" Gunn, and Harold "Hal" George.”

“...nothing should detract from the heroism or devotion to duty these young men displayed under horrendous conditions.”
- Dr. Roger G. Miller, Senior Historian, Air Force Historical Studies Office, Bolling AFB, Washington, D.C., Air Power History; Fall, 2009

“Congratulations on your book, which is a triumph. I am still enjoying its many highlights. I count myself lucky to have been so close to those events that have become important to our shared history.”
- Noel Tunny, World War II Historian and Author, Toowong, Australia

“I congratulate you on an epic piece of scholarship. The research and documentation behind the book is truly staggering. At the end I understood so much more about the Pacific campaign - in fact I now feel a sense of shame that all those brave boys suffered and died out there without my fully understanding how or why. The account conveys the confusion, rivalry, mismanagement and lack of communication that so undermined their efforts. But what emerges is that the holding of Bataan and the bombing raids did delay the Japanese enough to pave the way for eventual victory, even before the atomic bomb. For that they deserve the recognition that this book now provides.”
- Stanley Salmons, Professor Emeritus, University of Liverpool, UK

It's also a therapeutic book for Korean War and Vietnam veterans, who felt unsupported and at best ignored, to know how the Bataan fighters were treated and how they must have felt during and afterwards. And it's a lesson for all past and new veterans to understand the importance of supporting each other because the general public is never informed until years later of what really happens. I always wondered why the WW II veterans thought the Vietnam veterans were whiney, and now I know. WW II veterans got screwed as well, and never complained. War is never ever clean and neat like much of the public would like to believe. You are to be congratulated over and over again for showing that side of war. (I still cannot believe that some of the public thought that the men who were surrendered in Bataan were anything less than heroes).”
- Morris Egre, Retired United States Attorney now living in Virginia

“Martin and Stephenson paint a picture of quiet courage, with every member of the unit fighting to the point of sheer exhaustion, accomplishing incredible feats just to keep their planes airborne. These men launched daring raids against enemy bases with only a handful of operational aircraft and no fighter cover, knowing that each raid might be their last. The members of the unit come vividly to life, and remind the reader of the sacrifice made by so many American soldiers, sailors, and airmen in the Pacific Theater. ...the book is an excellent choice for anyone interested in examining the pioneering efforts of West Point graduates in the U.S. Army Air Forces of World War II or wishes to analyze first hand accounts of aerial combat in the Pacific Theater."
- Reviewed by Dr. Paul J. Springer, Dept. of History, United States Military Academy
          Jan/Feb 2009 issue of Assembly, West Point Alumni Magazine

“Long ignored, the story of the 27th Bomb Group is one of the finest ever written about MacArthur's use of air power. Like his attached Navy ships, they have been regularly ignored by historians of the Pacific War. With almost a spell-binding ease, the authors drop you into the long battle for the Philippines. The confusion is real, the communication systems in disarray, bombs exploding, streams of Japanese bullets lacing the airfields and you are there. Were this a novel, it would be a page turner. Alas, it is history - but so personalized that the men become your friends and you mourn their loss as much as their fellow aviators.

For the men who escaped to Australia at the start of the war, you live their resurrection as a fighting bomb squadron that helps MacArthur turn the tide, destroying Japanese shipping and adapting their planes for close air support on the fighting fronts. For the men captured on Bataan and Mindoro, you live their experiences as prisoners of war, made into slaves of the Japanese industrial war machine. You will not finish this book without saying to yourself, "My God, where did we find such men?”
- Roger Mansell, The Center for Research, Allied POWs Under the Japanese

“I found Appendix 4 to be a most interesting biographical follow-up concerning the 27th's pilots - for example, by my quick arithmetic, six became general officers. This is a fine tale of a little know chapter in World War II, complete with maps and excellent black-and-white photos. Authors Martin and Stephenson, the latter the nephew of a 27th pilot, should take particular pride in their thorough research.”
- Reviewed by Colonel Gordon W. Keiser, U.S. Marine Corps (Ret.) - Proceedings:U.S. Naval Institute, page 76, March 2009

“This really is an excellent book. It is a well researched and scholarly work supported by detailed appendices, references and notes. It shows the greatness to which the human spirit can rise in adversity. Some of it makes harrowing reading. ...A warning, you should have a box of tissues handy, you'll need them. There is one chapter which will break the stoutest heart.”
- Reviewed by Ted Bassett, Townsville Bulletin, Townsville Australia, Dec. 20, 2008

“I finished reading this excellent book. I had to wait ...before receiving my copy. The quality of the book justified the wait. Your achievement of weaving anecdotal information concerning individuals into operations of the 27th and placing the latter within the context of the Pacific war was superb. Arguably, the most attractive feature of the book...is the literary style. From beginning to end, it flows smoothly. It never lags. But without... the extensive research, there would have been little material to allow you to demonstrate the quality of your writing.”
- Roderick Stewart, Author and Historian, Ontario, Canada

“I enjoyed [Operation PLUM] tremendously - the Pacific War has always been of interest to me. We were in California in 1942 when all these things were happening in the Philippines, although we knew very little about it at that time. I remember working in the office at Vultee Aircraft Factory and [my husband] being stationed on the roof - they had anti-aircraft guns camouflaged up there! Kudos for a thoroughly researched and well-written book!”
- Anita Molstad, LaCrosse, WI

“I have read other books on the Pacific war, Philippines, Bataan, etc. Yours, in my humble opinion is the best.”
- Don Rouse, Navy Veteran, WWII

“History is so important but often ignored. This is a first hand account of the horrors that went with World War II. These stories, by those who were there, will hold your attention.”
- Col. Paul Poberezny, USAF (ret.), Founder, Experimental Aircraft Association

“This is a story of the darkest days of the war in the Pacific, immediately after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. It is a story of confusion, indecision, conflicting orders, and missed opportunities. Told through the experiences of the 27th Bombardment Group of the Army Air Forces, it …is an inspiring reminder of just how substantial our debt is to these men who paid such a terrible price to help lay the foundation for ultimate victory at a time when that victory seemed little more than a faint hope.”
- Neal Shine, Former publisher, ‘The Detroit Free Press’

“The tale of the U.S. Forces’ involvement in the war in the Pacific in the early months after Pearl Harbor is a story that cries out to be told…As a participant in the war against Japan that followed, I recommend this book as a historical comment to set the record straight, and to remind all Americans of the sacrifice and bravery of our armed forces then and now.”
- Col. Russell M. Paquette, USMC (ret.), WWII Veteran, Battles for Iwo Jima, Saipan, Tinian, Kwajelein

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“(Operation PLUM) provides an insightful look at an important chapter in the war in the Pacific. This patriotic saga is a compelling story of the heroism that characterized a generation.”
- Gen. Ralph E. Eberhart, USAF (ret.)

“This work details the experiences of pilots of an Army Air Forces’ dive bomber group caught up in the 1941-42 Philippines campaign without their aircraft, a story not previously covered as a single volume in the literature. By heavily relying on the pilots’ own descriptions of personal experiences, the authors are able to present a graphic picture of the frustrations the young and combat-inexperienced airmen endured in the early months of the Pacific War.”
- William H. Bartsch, Author, ‘December 8, 1941: MacArthur’s Pearl Harbor

“It (Operation PLUM ) was a tragic story. I can't believe all the research that went into the book and. contrary to my usual point of view, I especially enjoyed the longer footnotes that explained some of the more detailed information behind the statements in the text.”
- John Miller, Retired, FBI

“Whenever I read a book involving history, I usually have an 'easy read' book nearby so I can take a break from the complexities of dates, events, names, places, etc.  With this one, the book was my 'easy read' and the appendixes were my 'meat.'  As a child during the war, I developed a deep interest in its history.  But my knowledge of the events in the Pacific was very limited.  This book has filled the void.  It reads like a personal story.  Glenwood and all the others in the 27th Bombardment Group are the examples of why we have the word 'patriot' in our language.”
- Sue Askew

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“Just finished.  Great job!  Once I got into it, I couldn't put it down.”
- Bob Perry

“The book is outstanding!  So many of the WWII books are dry and impersonal. You do a great job of making it personal.
- G. Steven Larson, PhD, College athletic conference commissioner

“All in all, [Operation PLUM is] a magnificent piece of work. Congratulations.
- Roger Mansell, Director - Center for Research, Allied POWS Under the Japanese

“My congratulations to both you and your co-author;  [Operation PLUM is] a well researched, well written and easy to read book of the momentous and historical events involving the 27th Bombardment Group and others during those dark days of WW2.  They were very brave men who went far above and beyond the normal call of duty.
- John Jewell, Queensland, Australia

“(Operation PLUM) is exceptionally well written and very thoroughly researched.
- Jim Miller, New Orleans, LA

“I just finished Plum and thought it was the most enlightening book about the 2nd WW  and the Western Pacific that I ever read.  If I hadn't known that we won the war, I would have thought that we lost after reading the first half of your book!  I can't imagine that our people didn't take better care of our guys over there.
- Joe Ferris

“I knew from the time I first saw this book in manuscript form that it was a winner. It told two stories: the first an important examination of a previously unexplored portion of early World War II in the Pacific; the other a compelling tale of the co-author's uncle Glen and his knack for being in either the right place at the wrong time or the wrong place at the right time as world history was being made. Operation PLUM, in my opinion, succeeds on both counts. It is an educational and entertaining read.
- James L. Ramsey, Grosse Pointe Farms, Michigan

“Your book was a very good read. It made me realise how much I take this country of mine for granted. It could have been lost if not for the action of our countrymen and allies. I will treasure Operation PLUM as more than just a story.
- Bruce Buchan, Melbourne, Australia


Comments about Royce's Raid versus Doolittle's Raid

“What most Americans and present generations of Australians don't realise is that once those aircrews took off from Charters Towers on that magnificent long distance flight to the Philippines, there were many dangers involved just to get there. (And return.) For example, the first long leg from Charters Towers to Darwin comprised of a flying route across the Outback exceeding 1100 miles. I know the country very well that they flew over; it's still such a vast and remote area that had any B25 been forced down, their chances of survival or rescue in those days would have been remote. Their flight over water from Darwin [approximately 1500 miles to Mindanao] skirting Jap occupied islands plus weather conditions encountered with the possibility of fighter opposition make, in my humble opinion, a flight far superior to the Doolittle Raid, of which I have read about and seen two films made of it plus on the History Channel on TV. I don't detract from the Doolittle raid, but it is a great pity no actual film was taken during the Royce Raid as Doolittle's was.
- John Jewell, Queensland, Australia

“Doolittle's was not the first long-range Army Air Corps attack in the Pacific during World War II. That honor falls to "Royce's Raid," a week earlier on 11 April 1942. In an attempt to relieve the pressure on ground forces and perhaps permit supply ships to slip through the Japanese blockade to Bataan and Corregidor, a long-distance raid on Japanese installations [was] planned, and [BG Ralph] Royce selected to command it.”

“A flight of ten B-25s and three B-17s left the Royal Australian Air Force Field at Darwin at 10:30am on 11 April 1942 for the seven-hour, 1500-mile flight to Del Monte airfield on Mindanao. In order to make the long, overwater flight, additional fuel tanks had to be installed in the bomb bays. Upon arrival, the crew members had to remove these auxliary tanks, refuel by hand from 55-gallon drums, and upload bombs.”

“The following morning, the hidden B-25 bombers achieved complete surprise as they hit Cebu Harbor on Cebu Island north of Mindanao. Two B-17s hit Batangas and Nichols Field; the other had mechanical problems. The B-25s returned to Cebu and Davao on the 13th, bombing planes, ships, docks and other buildings and even strafing troops and downing a floatplane. After the second day of operations, with fuel supplies nearly exhausted, the auxiliary tanks were re-installed for the long flight back.”

“The news of the Royce Raid dominated the headlines for all of a week. But fame is fleeting, and the Doolittle Raid soon took over the headlines, despite the loss of all 16 B-25 bombers and crews. Doolittle himself felt that his raid had been unsuccessful, but the American media and the public thought otherwise. ”

If you are interested in the history and the sacrifices of 27th Bombardment Group during the early months of the war in the Pacific (16 of the pilots and copilots on Royce's Raid came from the 27th), both in the air and on the ground, see the newly published Operation PLUM by Adrian Martin and COL (Ret.) Larry W. Stephenson.

- J. Phoenix, Esq., 'Gray Matter' - U.S. Military Academy Alumni Newsletter, Sept 4, 2008

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